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Image File Formats


Nom abrégé
NomJoint Photographic Experts GroupGraphics Interchange FormatPortable Network GraphicsWebPAV1 Image File Format (AVIF)High Efficiency Image File FormatJPEG XLTagged Image File FormatWindows BitmapRAW Image filePhotoshop DocumentScalable Vector GraphicsPortable Document Format (PDF)
DescriptionJPEG is the most common image format used by digital cameras, it is the most common format for storing and transmitting photographic images on the World Wide Web.GIF is a bitmap image format that allows a lossless compression by reducing the image to 256 distinct colors. It has been replaced by PNG after fear over patent issues. It is still widely used for animation as it's the only format that supports animation and that is widely supported by browsers.PNG was created to improve GIF image-file format. Removing patent license issues at that time; and removing 256 colors limitation.WebP is an image file format developed by Google, and supposed to be a new open standard for lossily compressed true color graphics. It's a direct competitor to JPEG.AV1 Image File Format is a recent image format based on the AV1 video codec and with a wide feature set.High Efficiency Image File Format is a container format developed by the Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG). The format has several variants and supports individual or sequences of images.JPEG XL is the next generation image format, with the ambition to replace the old JPEG format for the long term.TIFF is a file format for storing images losslessly. It is widely supported by image-manipulation applications, by scanning, faxing, word processing, optical character recognition and other applications.BMP File Format as been widely used on Windows platform. Although it supports data compression and alpha channels, these features were not widely used as it was not supported by all image editors.RAW relates to several image file formats since each camera manufacturer has one or several formats (depending on equipments). These files contains the data acquired by sensors almost unprocessed.PSD is the default image file format used by Adobe Photoshop. It supports layers and transparency.SVG is an XML based file format. It allows to create vector graphics with animation and interaction support. It can be edited with any text editor.PDF is a file format used to present documents in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems. Each PDF file encapsulates a complete description of a fixed-layout flat document, including the text, fonts, graphics, and other information needed to display it.
Développé parJoint Photographic Experts GroupCompuServeW3C (donated by PNG Development Group)GoogleAlliance for Open Media (AOM)MPEGJoint Photographic Experts GroupAdobeMicrosoftCamera manufacturersAdobeW3CAdobe (until 2008)
ISO (since 2008)
Année19921987 (still)
1989 (animated)
19962010 (lossy) 2011 (lossless/alpha/animation)2019201520211986 (version 1)
1992 (version 6)
1984 (version 1)
1998 (version 5)
multiple proprietary formats exist1990 (first version) (not standardized)2001 (SVG 1.0)1993 (first version) 2017 (PDF 2.0)
AvantagesSmall file size
Widely supported format
Good color range
Simple animations/short video clips
Widely supported format
Transparency support
Lossless compression
Smaller file sizes
Widely accepted format
Transparency support
Small file size (Smaller than JPEG with comparable image quality)Small file sizeSmall file size (Smaller than JPEG with comparable image quality)
Modern features (HDR, animation...)
High-quality images
Compatible with both PCs and Macs
Multiple images and multiple pages can be saved in one file
Fast to encodeLosslessLossless
Layers support
Transparency support
Vector graphics: can be resized without quality loss
Text-based: can be edited with a text editor
Protects intellectual property
Maintains printed format
InconvénientsLossy compression
Not great for text, simple graphics, or illustrations
Limited to 256 colors (8-bit per pixel). Only binary transparency.Lossless only. Poor compression for photographic images.Limited to 8-bit. Lossy forces 4:2:0 tv-range YCbCr.Limited support yetLimited support yet
Not yet enabled by most browsersLarge file size
Not great for web graphics
Minor software compatibility issues
Large file sizeLarge file sizeSecurity issues; can contain executable code (javascript) and non-embedded (URI) resources, so essentially requires a browser for proper viewing. Not intended for print.Longer browser loading times
Non-editable content
Not great for complex graphics printing
Not really useful as a graphic image
Image vectorielleNonNonNonNonNonNon- Can add splines to a raster imageNonNonNon- Can have text layers and other vector elementsOuiOui
Image matricielle (Raster)OuiOuiOuiOuiOuiOuiOuiOuiOuiOuiOuiOui Can have embedded JPEG/PNGOui
Format sans perteNonOuiOuiOui Lossless and lossyOui Lossless and lossyOui Lossless and lossyOui Lossless and lossyOuiOuiOuiOuiOuiOui
Support animationNonOui- Animated PNG is an extension to the PNG format which is compatible with the Gecko and WebKit layout engines and many image editing suites. Users of software incompatible with APNG see the first frame as a still.OuiOuiOuiOuiNonNonNonNonOuiNon
Support de la transparenceNon- Only all-or-nothing, no semi-transparencyOuiOuiOuiOuiOuiOuiOuiNonOuiOuiNon
Support des couchesNonNonNonNonNonNonOui-NonNonOuiOuiNon
Profondeur de couleur max. (bit depth)8-bit8-bit (but only 256 different colors)16-bit8-bit12-bit8-bit (HEIC)
up to 16-bit (HEIX)
24-bit integer
32-bit float
32-bit8-bitTypically 14-bit16-bit integer
32-bit float
Supporte CMYK (pour l'imprimerie)OuiNonNonNonNonNonOuiOuiNonNonOuiNonOui
Nombre de canaux max.4 (RGB or CMYK)1 (palette data)4 (RGBA)4 (RGBA)5 (RGBA+depth)4099 (RGB/CMY + up to 4096 extra channels)655354 (RGBA)Typically Bayer data (RGBG)564 (RGBA)
Utilisations communesPhotography
Photographic images electronically and on the web
Printing photographs
Simple web graphics
Simple web graphics like logos
Illustrations, or raster text rendering
Images on the webApple iPhone photosImages from scanner
HD imaging
Working with photographs without image quality loss
Image editingHDR photography, ArchivingImage editingScalable graphicsFixed layout flat documents
Navigateurs supportés (sans plugin)
Google ChromeOuiOuiOuiOuiOui Chrome 85- AVIF- Disabled by defaultNonNonNonNonOuiOui
Microsoft EdgeOuiOuiOuiOuiNonNon- Disabled by defaultNonNonNonNonOuiOui
SafariOuiOuiOui- Partial supportNonNonNonOuiNonNonNonOuiNon
FirefoxOuiOuiOuiOuiOui Firefox 92Non- Disabled by defaultNonNonNonNonOuiOui
OperaOuiOuiOuiOuiOui Opera 71Non- Disabled by defaultNonNonNonNonOuiOui
Internet ExplorerOuiOuiOuiNonNonNonNonOuiNonNonNonOui IE9Oui
Extensions.jpg .jpeg .jpe .jif .jfif .jfi.gifStill: .png; Animated: .png, .apng.webp.avif .avifs.heif .heifs .heic.jxl.tiff .tif.bmp .dib.crw .cr2 .raw .rw2 .nef .nrw .orf ....psd .pdd.svg .svgz.pdf
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28 mai 2024 10:46:37
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