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Théorie des Organisations - Comportement du Consommateur & Personnaité


Too much of a good thing: curvilinear relationships between personality traits and job performance.Personality and job performance: The Big Five revisited.Validity of Observer Ratings of the Big Five Personality Factors.THE BIG FIVE PERSONALITY TRAITS, GENERAL MENTAL ABILITY, AND CAREER SUCCESS ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN.Personality Strength and Situational Influences on Behavior: A Conceptual Review and Research AgendaSocial investment and personality: A meta-analysis of the relationship of personality traits to investment in work, family, religion, and volunteerismPatterns of mean-level change in personality traits across the life course: A metaanalysis of longitudinal studiesAffective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: a meta-analysis of antecedents, correlates, and consequencesEmotional labor and burnout: Comparing two perspectives of "people work."Another perspective on personality: Meta-analytic integration of observers’ accuracy and predictive validityCounterproductive work behavior (CWB) in response to job stressors and organizational justiceGender Differences in Personality Traits Across Cultures: Robust and Surprising FindingsValidation par AFC du Big Five Inventory ( BFI-Fr ). Analyse convergente avec le NEO-PI-R Validation par AFC du Big Five InventoryBIG FIVE INVENTORY ( BFI )Genetic and environmental influences on human psychological differencesHow do people pursue happiness?: Relating personality, happiness-increasing strategies, and well-being.Positive emotion dispositions differentially associated with Big Five personality and attachment stylePERSONALITY AND PREDICTION OF PERFORMANCE IN THE WORKPLACE PERSONALITY AND PREDICTIONAnalyse conceptuelle Modèle de structure du marché non symétrique fondé sur le concept « d ’ hésitation »L'impact de la personnalité de la marque sur la relation à la marque dans le domaine de la téléphonie mobileEFFECT OF SITUATION STRENGTH AND TRAIT ACTIVATION ON THE VALIDITY OF THE BIG FIVE PERSONALITY TRAITS IN PREDICTING JOB PERFORMANCE.
Publication date2011200019941999201520072006200220022010200120012010199920032006200620052015
AbstractThe relationships between personality traits and performance are often assumed to be linear. This assumption has been challenged conceptually and empirically, but results to date have been inconclusive. In the current study, we took a theory-driven approach in systematically addressing this issue. Results based on two different samples generally supported our expectations of the curvilinear relationships between personality traits, including Conscientiousness and Emotional Stability, and job performance dimensions, including task performance, organizational citizenship behavior, and counterproductive work behaviors. We also hypothesized and found that job complexity moderated the curvilinear personality–performance relationships such that the inflection points after which the relationships disappear were lower for low-complexity jobs than they were for high-complexity jobs. This finding suggests that high levels of the two personality traits examined are more beneficial for performance in high- than low-complexity jobs. We conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for the use of personality in personnel selection. Too Much of a Good Thing: Curvilinear Relationships Between Personality Traits and Job Performance - ResearchGate. Available from: [accessed Oct 18, 2015].Notwithstanding a recent flurry of organizational research on the construct of situational strength, research on the other side of the coinpersonality strengthhas rarely been conducted in organizational settings, has been scattered across multiple disciplines, has been called different things by different researchers, and has not yet been used to test theoretical propositions paralleling those in recent organizational research on situational strength. In the present review, drawing from several disparate research literatures (e.g., situational strength, personality states, traitedness, cross-situational consistency, scalability, appropriateness, self-monitoring, interpersonal dependency, hardiness, attitude strength, and self-concept clarity), we (a) define personality strength and contrast it with personality trait, personality strengths (plural), and layperson conceptualizations of the terms strong personality and weak personality, (b) briefly discuss the history of research related to personality strength, (c) identify a common prediction, emanating largely independently from several literatures, regarding the interactive effect of personality traits and personality strength on behavior, (d) articulate three novel predictions regarding the impact of personality strength on within-person situational and behavioral variability, (e) develop three broad categories of personality strength operationalizations (i.e., statistical, content-general, and content-independent) and discuss potential interrelationships among them, (f) suggest best practices for operationalization, thereby providing an agenda for future research, and, finally, (g) discuss the practical implications of this work for human resource management.Investing in normative, age-graded social roles has broad implications for both the individual and society. The current meta-analysis examines the way in which personality traits relate to four such investments— work, family, religion, and volunteerism. The present study uses meta-analytic techniques (K = 94) to identify the cross-sectional patterns of relationships between social investment in these four roles and the personality trait domains of agreeableness, conscientiousness, and emotional stability. Results show that the extent of investment in social roles across these domains is positively related to agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and low psychoticism. These findings are more robust when individuals are psychologically committed to rather than simply demographically associated with the investment role.The present study used meta-analytic techniques (number of samples 92) to determine the patterns of mean-level change in personality traits across the life course. Results showed that people increase in measures of social dominance (a facet of extraversion), conscientiousness, and emotional stability, especially in young adulthood (age 20 to 40). In contrast, people increase on measures of social vitality (a 2nd facet of extraversion) and openness in adolescence but then decrease in both of these domains in old age. Agreeableness changed only in old age. Of the 6 trait categories, 4 demonstrated significant change in middle and old age. Gender and attrition had minimal effects on change, whereas longer studies and studies based on younger cohorts showed greater change.The authors conducted meta-analyses to assess (a) relations among affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization and (b) relations between the three forms of commitment and variables identified as their antecedents, correlates, and consequences in Meyer and Allen’s (1991) Three-Component Model. They found that the three forms of commitment are related yet distinguishable from one another as well as from job satisfaction, job involvement, and occupational commitment. Affective and continuance commitment generally correlated as expected with their hypothesized antecedent variables;no unique antecedents of normative commitment were identified. Also, as expected, all three forms of commitment related negatively to withdrawal cognition and turnover, and affective commitment had the strongest and most favorable correlations with organization-relevant (attendance, performance, and organizational citizenship behavior) and employee-relevant (stress and work–family conflict) outcomes. Normative commitment was also associated with desirable outcomes, albeit not as strongly. Continuance commitment was unrelated, or related negatively, to these outcomes. Comparisons of studies conducted within and outside North America revealed considerable similarity yet suggested that more systematic primary research concerning cultural differences is warranted.Although it has often been presumed that jobs involving “people work” (e.g., nurses, service workers) are emotionally taxing (Maslach & Jackson, 1982), seldom is the emotional component of these jobs explicitly studied. The current study compared two perspectives of emotional labor as predictors of burnout beyond the effects of negative affectivity: job-focused emotional labor (work demands regarding emotion expression) and employeefocused emotional labor (regulation of feelings and emotional expression). Significant differences existed in the emotional demands reported by five occupational groupings. The use of surface-level emotional labor, or faking, predicted depersonalization beyond thework demands. Perceiving the demand to display positive emotions and using deep-level regulation were associated with a heightened sense of personal accomplishment, suggesting positive benefits to this aspect ofwork. These findings suggest newantecedents of employee burnout and clarify the emotional labor literature by comparing different conceptualizations of this concept.The bulk of personality research has been built from self-report measures of personality. However, collecting personality ratings from other-raters, such as family, friends, and even strangers, is a dramatically underutilized method that allows better explanation and prediction of personality’s role in many domains of psychology. Drawing hypotheses from D. C. Funder’s (1995) realistic accuracy model about trait and information moderators of accuracy, we offer 3 meta-analyses to help researchers and applied psychologists understand and interpret both consistencies and unique insights afforded by other-ratings of personality. These meta-analyses integrate findings based on 44,178 target individuals rated across 263 independent samples. Each meta-analysis assessed the accuracy of observer ratings, as indexed by interrater consensus/reliability (Study 1), self– other correlations (Study 2), and predictions of behavior (Study 3). The results show that although increased frequency of interacting with targets does improve accuracy in rating personality, informants’ interpersonal intimacy with the target is necessary for substantial increases in other-rating accuracy. Interpersonal intimacy improved accuracy especially for traits low in visibility (e.g., Emotional Stability) but only minimally for traits high in evaluativeness (e.g., Agreeableness). In addition, observer ratings were strong predictors of behaviors. When the criterion was academic achievement or job performance, other-ratings yielded predictive validities substantially greater than and incremental to self-ratings. These findings indicate that extraordinary value can gained by using other-reports to measure personality, and these findings provide guidelines toward enriching personality theory. Various subfields of psychology in which personality variables are systematically assessed and utilized in research and practice can benefit tremendously from use of others’ ratings to measure personality variables.Relations among job stressors, perceived justice, negative emotional reactions to work, counterproductive work behavior (CWB), autonomy, and affective traits were investigated. Participants representing a wide variety of jobs across many organizations were surveyed both inside and outside a university setting. Results were consistent with a theoretical job stress framework in which organizational constraints, interpersonal conflict, and perceived injustice are job stressors, CWB is a behavioral strain response, and negative emotion mediates the stressor–strain relationship. Only very weak support was found for the moderating role of affective disposition (trait anger and trait anxiety), and no support was found for the expected moderating role of autonomy in the stressor–CWB relationshipSecondary analyses of Revised NEO Personality Inventory data from 26 cultures (N = 23,031) suggest that gender differences are small relative to individual variation within genders; differences are replicated across cultures for both college-age and adult samples, and differences are broadly consistent with gender stereotypes: Women reported themselves to be higher in Neuroticism, Agreeableness, Warmth, and Openness to Feelings, whereas men were higher in Assertiveness and Openness to Ideas. Contrary to predictions from evolutionary theory, the magnitude of gender differences varied across cultures. Contrary to predictions from the social role model, gender differences were most pronounced in European and American cultures in which traditional sex roles are minimized. Possible explanations for this surprising finding are discussed, including the attribution of masculine and feminine behaviors to roles rather than traits in traditional cultures.traduction du modèle. historique et principales écoles de pensées validation du modèle et des traits traduits champ d'étude intercuturel SANS INTERET SPECIFIQUE focus sur le NEO-PI-Roriginal test and scale design and taxonomy of thr big fives dimensionsPsychological researchers typically distinguish five major domains of individual differences in human behavior: cognitive abilities, personality, social attitudes, psychological interests, and psychopathology (Lubinski, 2000). In this article we: discuss a number of methodological errors commonly found in research on human individual differences; introduce a broad framework for interpreting findings from contemporary behavioral genetic studies; briefly outline the basic quantitative methods used in human behavioral genetic research; review the major criticisms of behavior genetic designs, with particular emphasis on the twin and adoption methods; describe the major or dominant theoretical scheme in each domain; and review behavioral genetic findings in all five domains. We conclude that there is now strong evidence that virtually all individual psychological differences, when reliably measured, are moderately to substantially heritableFive hundred ethnically diverse undergraduates reported their happiness strategies – that is, activities undertaken to maintain or increase happiness. Factor analysis extracted eight general strategies: Affiliation, Partying, Mental Control, Goal Pursuit, Passive Leisure, Active Leisure, Religion, and Direct Attempts at happiness. According to multiple regression analyses, these strategies accounted for 52% of the variance in self-reported happiness and 16% over and above the variance accounted for by the Big Five personality traits. The strongest unique predictors of current happiness were Mental Control (inversely related), Direct Attempts, Affiliation, Religion, Partying, and Active Leisure. Gender differences suggest that men prefer to engage in Active Leisure and Mental Control, whereas women favor Affiliation, Goal Pursuit, Passive Leisure, and Religion. Relative to Asian and Chicano(a) students, White students preferred using high arousal strategies. Finally, mediation analyses revealed that many associations between individuals’ personality and happiness levels are to some extent mediated by the strategies they use to increase their happiness – particularly, by Affiliation, Mental Control, and Direct Attempts.Although theorists have proposed the existence of multiple distinct varieties of positive emotion, dispositional positive affect is typically treated as a unidimensional variable in personality research. We present data elaborating conceptual and empirical differences among seven positive emotion dispositions in their relationships with two core personality constructs, the ‘‘Big Five’’ and adult attachment style. We found that the positive emotion dispositions were differentially associated with self- and peer-rated Extraversion, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Openness to Experience, and Neuroticism. We also found that different adult attachment styles were associated with different kinds of emotional rewards. Findings support the theoretical utility of differentiating among several dispositional positive emotion constructs in personality research.Concerning the use of personality in personnel selection and evaluation, the last decade has seen important advances made in several domains. An important one was the development of the Big Five as a valid framework within which researchers and organizations can pursue their research and applications. The Big Five combined with meta-analytic methods allowed researchers to answer many of the questions left unaddressed for many years. Today, confidence in personality and its measures give a new dynamic both to theory development and applications. Further research will need to show the benefits of linking specific, lower-level facets of the Big Five to specific, lower-level criteria of performance. This paper gives an overview of the use of personality in the prediction of performance and suggests directions for future researchsans intérêt l'hésitation comme un trait de personnalité(analyse entre engagement et fidélité) Dans tous les cas, les relations entre engagement et répétition d’achat ne semblent pas contestées. Dans ces conditions, l’on comprend pour quelles raisons l’engagement est considéré comme une mesure de l’efficacité du marketing (R.M. Morgan et S.D. Hunt, 1994)Derived from two theoretical concepts--situation strength and trait activation--we develop and test an interactionistmodel governing the degree to which five-factormodel personality traits are related to job performance. One concept--situation strength--was hypothesized to predict the validities of all of the "Big Five" traits, while the effects of the other--trait activation--were hypothesized to be specific to each trait. Based on this interactionist model, personality--performance correlations were located in the literature, and occupationally homogeneous jobs were coded according to their theoretically relevant contextual properties. Results revealed that all five traits were more predictive of performance for jobs in which the process by which the work was done represented weak situations (e.g., work was unstructured, employee had discretion to make decisions). Many of the traits also predicted performance in job contexts that activated specific traits (e.g., extraversion better predicted performance in jobs requiring social skills, agreeableness was less positively related to performance in competitive contexts, openness was more strongly related to performance in jobs with strong innovation/ creativity requirements). Overall, the study's findings supported our interactionist model in which the situation exerts both general and specific effects on the degree to which personality predicts job performance.
TagCloudJob performance; Validity of personality test; Motivational Factor; Ability Factor; Contextual performance; Task Performance;Conscientiousness; extraversion; performance rating; validity of self-rating; motives; intentions; feelings;General Mental ability; Job satisfaction; income; occupational statuts; Neuroticism; anxiety; hostility; depression; self-consciusness; vulnerability; impulsiveness; Affability; Job complexity;Personality Trait; Personality Strength-s- (Singular and Plural); Behaviorial Variabilitysocial investment; personality structure; volunteerismpersonality change, meta-analysis, mean-level change, personality developmentmeta-analysis; affective, continuance, and normative organizational commitment; work conditions; turnover; organizational behavioremotional labor; personal accomplishment; burnout; antecedent;personality, meta-analysis, observers, informants, consensusjob stressors; CWB; orgnizational justice; autonomygender; personality traits; cultureintercultural; translation; validation; form;scoring testpersosnality; performance; workplace; task performance; environment; context
Méthodoogy & Field of research (targeted population & number)105 sales representatives (supervisor, coworker, customer) Without hypothese tested, they also examined agreeableness, emotional stability, openess to experience from supervisor, coworker and customers);Intergenerational studies, limited by the population (growth during the same period at the same place) + attritionPsycINFO database to locate studies for the metaanalysisreviewed the reference list from an earlier meta-analysis of rank-order consistency for longitudinal studies ; reviewed additional databases on personality development ; searched the PsychLIT and Dissertation Abstracts databases ; reviewed current issues of relevant journals ; reviewed the references cited in each article for additional studies ; asked knowledgeable colleagues to review the listscanning the PsychLit (1985–2000), PsycInfo (1985–2000), and ProQuest Direct (1990–2000) ; searched the Social Sciences Citation Index up to and including the year 2000 ; manual search was conducted by contacting the authors of the published studies238 full-time Canadian employees ; convenience sample, recruited through undergraduate business students who received a small sum of money for their assistance in recruitment ; sampling of occupational type consistedof human service workers (29), service/sales employees (143), managers (15), clerical staff (22), and physical laborers (29) //////////// First, we compared the emotional demands and levels of emotional control perceived by employees in two forms of “people work” and three other occupational categories. Second, we assessed the operationalization of emotional labor as work requirements by assessing the relationship of job demands and emotional control with the three burnout dimensions. Third, we tested the additive value of operationalizing emotional labor as the employees’ process of modifying emotions and emotional expressions.(a) using a search string in PsycINFO ; (b) hand searching through a collection of over 200 psychological test manuals; (c) reviewing research bibliographies of three personality inventories that have other-report forms ; (d) reviewing the reference sections of existing meta-analyses and summary articles on other-ratings of personality ; (e) manually searching relevant existing meta-analytic databases; (f) contacting researchers who have frequently used other-ratings to request unpublished data; and (g) reviewing the reference sections of articles located through Strategies 1–6 for potential contributing data sources.292 employees at a variety of organizations in southern and central Florida ; 214 (73%) were University of South Florida psychology and management students who also were employed, and 78 (27%) were nonstudent employees from manufacturing, financial, utility, entertainment, and academic organizations in Tampa ; the anonymous self-report survey included measures of job stressors (autonomy, constraints, conflict, and justice), affect (positive emotions, negative emotions, trait anger, and trait anxiety), and counterproductivework behaviors (CWB).AFC interultural validityAFCPrésentation de nombreuses échelles de mesure différenciées par AFC ne concerne pas le domaine du travail
DiscussionValidity of observer ratings (self assessment) socia reputation (others view) is better for prediction. Correlation between past and future behaviorCorrelation and predictability of intrinsic career success trhough hugh conscientiousness; Association between high cognitive ability and extrinsic career success, with low neuroticism, ow agreeableness, high extraversion, high conscientiousness. Impact on the variance of measuring during childhood. Validity of the big fives personaity traits controlling for general mental ability. General Menta Ability strongly predicted extrinsic career success, unique link with intrinsic success. However, uncorrelated with job satisfaction.relationship between social investment and the personality traits of agreeableness, conscientiousness, and emotional stability ; social investments in work and family positively related to conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability ; social investment in religion positively related to agreeableness and socializationpersonality traits show a clear pattern of normative change across the life course ; people become more socially dominant, conscientious, and emotionally stable mostly in young adulthood ; personality traits changed more often in young adulthood than any other period of the life course, including adolescence ; no gender differences in estimates of standardized mean change in the domains of conscientiousness, emotional stability, openness to experience, social dominance and agreeableness ; no relationship between cohort and either social vitality or emotional stability ; unexpected cohort effects for agreeableness and conscientiousness ; attrition had no discernable effect on estimates of mean-level change over timeThree-Component Model ; work experiences were found to have much stronger relations, particularly with affective commitment ; affective commitment correlates strongly with the various forms of organizational justice (i.e., distributive, procedural, and interactional) and with transformational leadership ; all three forms of organizational commitment correlate negatively with withdrawal cognition, turnover intention, and turnover ; Affective commitment has the strongest positive correlation with these desirable work behaviors, followed by normative commitment ; affective commitment might have benefits for employees as well as for organizationsemployees in “people work” did not report significantly higher levels of emotional exhaustion than did respondents employed in other occupations ; Service/sales employees reported the highest overall mean ; Human service workers reported significantly lower levels of depersonalization and higher levels of personal accomplishment ; employees who experience a level of success in their work are more likely to invest in their performance ; physical laborers reported higher levels of depersonalization and diminished personal accomplishment relative to human service workers ; surface acting was significantly related to emotional exhaustion ; only sincere expressions have beneficial outcomes for employeesother-ratings are clearly linked to targets’ personality traits and targets behave consistently enough for other-raters to rate their personality accurately ; personality ratings from multiple raters must be assessed to improve research reliability and validity ; Highly visible traits and nonevaluative traits should be rated more accurately by others ; interpersonal intimacy with the target produced further gains in interrater and self– other accuracy ; work colleagues’ ratings were strongly predictive of targets’ job performance (considerably more strongly predictive than were self-ratings)job stressors, including perceived injustice related to both negative emotions and CWB ; negative emotions related to CWB ; at least partial mediation of emotions in the relations between job stressors and CWB ; organizational stressors (such as constraints and injustice) were more closely associated with organizational than personal types of CWB ; interpersonal conflict was more closely associated with personal than organizational CWB ; Situations seen by people as unfair are stressors that may lead to negative emotions and presumably to subsequent strains beyond CWB ;gender differences are modest in magnitude, consistent with gender stereotypes, and replicable across cultures ; most of the gender differences we found can be grouped in four categories: Women tend to be higher in negative affect, submissiveness, and nurturance, and more concerned with feelings than with ideas ; Researchers in the United States have failed to find evidence that men are more reluctant than women to report distress ; men were found to be higher in assertiveness and women higher in nurturance ; self-reported gender differences are more pronounced in Western, individualistic countries ; Analyses of cultural variation in gender differences showed that differentiation is both reliable and general ; Differences across cultures in the frequency of psychiatric diagnoses might be due to differential access to health care ; gender stereotypes were most differentiated in Western, individualistic cultures ; personality traits in general are less relevant to members of collectivist cultures
Limiteslack of research relating social investment to personality traits in major journals ; important facet of psychological experience is being neglected (health, well-being, longevity, society at large)a disproportionate number of longitudinal studies of personality have been based on highly educated, middleclass or affluent samples ; the necessity of categorizing various personality measures into the Big Five domains ; the generalizability of the findings (no Africa, Asia)The different sample sizes for each occupational group ; study was cross-sectional, so the direction of causality cannot be tested ; study did not include variables currently known to predict burnoutfailure of the data to support the predicted moderating role of job control (autonomy), particularly in the relations between task-related stressors (constraints and injustice) and task-related (organizational) CWB ; focus on affective and behavioral responses to the perceived rather than “objective” environment ; the use of a convenience sample of nonstudent employees and the combination of that sample with a sample of employed studentsThe range of cultures is limited, with only one Latin American and two Black African cultures ; women are overrepresented ; The subsamples differ in age distributions ; data analyzed were collected at different timesfew traits need to be more documented (agreableness)
Ouverture / Perspectivesystematically investigate the relations between social investment and a broad array of personality constructsmore studies performed on a wider variety of samples (middle-aged, older individuals)need more research using experimental, quasi-experimental, or longitudinal designs that are better suited to detecting causal effects ; interactions among the components ; more systematic cross-cultural research in which relations among the constructs are examined in the context of existing theories of cultural differenceslongitudinal studies to test the causal direction ; examine the contribution of emotion regulation processes in predicting burnout over and above previously tested predictors such as role stressorsusing a broader set of traits ; further qualitative studies on the sources of discrepancies between self- and other-ratingsThe future of research on gender differences in personality lies beyond self-reportseven if the Big Five gives a solid framework to the study of personality and its predictability of performance at work, certain factors from the Big Five seem not to have received sufficient attention in the literature. For example, when compared to extraversion (introver- sion) or emotional stability (neuroticism), the factor agreeableness is less documented in terms of predictive data in performance in the workplace. To explain that, Graziano and Eisenberg (1997) reported that agreeableness has undergone many changes in its lexical definition, starting with conformity (Fiske, 1949), then friendly conformity, or hostile non-conformity (Digman & Takemoto-Chock, 1981). Also recently, Jonhson and Ostendorf (1993) reported that the factor agreeableness could be, depending on the type of factor analysis used in a lexical study, closer to the dimension of “conforming to others’ wishes” or “possessing a pleasant disposition”. Clearly, this factor needs to mobilize attention in its definition (and expression) within a culture, and its impact on performance in organizations.
ConclusionPersonality traits other than Conscientiousness are nearly equally important for certain occupations and criteria (Agreeableness and Extraversion)Stability of personality traits. Longitudinal consistency of traits explains ability to predict career success. Situational effects are limited. Suggest to study correlation between individual difference and job performance. Correation between success of the organization (situational effect ?)Limitation of Trait-centric view of personality caused by (lack of) consistency of behaviour across situation (environnement)definition of the concept of social investment = the investment in and commitment to adult social roles ; psychological commitment to these roles is associated with the personality trait domains of agreeableness, conscientiousness, and emotional stabilitythe patterns of personality trait change are intrinsically positive ; people tend to become more socially dominant, conscientious, and emotionally stable through midlife ; the period of young adulthood rather than adolescence is the primary period of mean-level personality trait development ; continued plasticity of personality traits beyond age 30 and well into old age (social vitality, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience) ; personality trait development is not just a phenomenon of childhood but also of all adulthoodEmotional differences in the nature of “people work” ; results discourage the use of frequency of contact as the main predictor of emotional exhaustion ; emotional demands and emotion management styles can create positive outcomes, not just stresstraits appear to be readily expressed (high RA) to those intimately acquainted with targets, but considerably less trait expression is afforded to those less intimately acquainted with targets (even when interactions with a target are frequent) ; other-raters are considerably idiosyncratic in how they view the target (modest DU), especially in rating traits low in visibility and high in evaluativeness ; other-ratings assess traits more validly than do self-ratings for predicting at least some important criteria (e.g., academic and job performance)personality seemed more important as a moderator of personal CWB than organizational CWB, and did not seem relevant for justiceoffre en annexe un exemple de test traduit et la méthode de scoringpredictive scheme seems to be better in context performance than in task specific performance New questions concerning measures of personality with lower-order constructs, global (international) definitions, and more attention to the construct and measurement of performance in organizations will refine our knowledge on the “right” use of personality in the workplace.
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